Which flour for which use?

What is the difference between T55 and T65 flour? What is T80 flour used for? My recipe says T110 flour, but I only have T45, does it still work?
So many questions about this essential ingredient in our cupboards, which we will of course answer.

What does the T in flour mean?

The “T” next to a number corresponds to a “type” of flour. This type is determined according to the level of ash that each flour contains. So comes the moment when you ask us, “but what is ash rate?” », to which we answer that it is the percentage of minerals remaining in the flour after cooking at 600°C. In other words, the more minerals a flour contains, the higher its type will be.
In France, wheat flour and rye flour are the only ones to have their own classification.

The different wheat flours and their uses


The grain having been stripped of the bran (its hull), which contains most of the minerals, the ash content of the flour is low. This also explains why the flour is very fine and white. In terms of nutrition, it contains little fiber and has a high glycemic index.
It is one of the most commonly used flours in baking and pastries. Cakes, puff pastries, brioches, cakes, breads… Thanks to its richness in gluten, it makes any preparation rise and makes it airy.


T55 is like T45, a white and versatile flour. Less refined, therefore less elastic, it is preferred for shortbread and shortcrust pastry recipes. Good to know, in stores, T55 is often the cheapest flour.


Still in the “white” flour family, T65 is mainly used in bakeries. It is most often found in organic aisles.


Nicknamed “kissed” flour, it is easier to work with than wholemeal flours, while being rich in nutrients.
T80 is the best compromise for obtaining airy, digestible preparations with a slight rustic taste.


The bran and germ of the wheat have partly been preserved before grinding, the flour obtained is therefore less white and its taste more pronounced. Thanks to its fiber content, it also has a moderate glycemic index.
On the other hand, it rises more difficult than white flours, so it is better to mix it with T65 or T80 flour to work with it easily.
It is preferably chosen organic, because the wheat husk may have been exposed to pesticides.


The entire cereal is crushed, this can also be seen in the appearance of the flour, which is less smooth and browner than refined flours. This flour does not rise, even with the addition of yeast. It must therefore be used to thicken a dish (flans, pancakes, sauce, etc.), or if you want to make bread, mix it with white flour.

What about T0 and T00 flours?

These are Italian flours, there are five types of flour: 00, 0, 1, 2 and integral. T0 and 00 flours are perfect for making homemade pizza dough like the Italians. There is no exact equivalence with our French flours, however, we will use T45 to replace 00; T55 for 0; the T65 for the 1; the T110 for the 2; and T150 for wholemeal flour.

Can I replace one flour with another?

If the flours are of a similar type, it is possible, even if it risks slightly modifying the texture and the result of the recipe. On the other hand, it is strongly not recommended if the standard deviation is large. A bread with T45 flour must contain 55% water, while for breads made with wholemeal flour it is necessary 70%, because the higher the type of flour, the more water it absorbs.
Replacing the flour indicated in a recipe is therefore a delicate exercise. The best thing, if you want to use a different flour, is to replace only 1/3 of the required quantity with the flour of your choice.

Other flours with gluten

  • rye
  • spelled, green spelled, einkorn
  • barley
  • emmer wheat
  • kamut
  • triticale
  • oats

Note that if oats contain gluten, it is a gluten that is easily assimilated by the body. It can therefore be consumed by people who are intolerant or allergic to gluten.

Concerning rye flour, richer in minerals, the equivalences are different:

  • T70: white flour
  • T85: brown or semi-wholemeal flour
  • T130: wholemeal flour
  • T170: wholemeal flour

Gluten-free flours

Buckwheat, corn, rice, chickpeas… There are many gluten-free flours, which is perfect when you don’t consume gluten, or want to add a little originality to a recipe. On the other hand, they are more difficult to use than wheat flour. We will generally use a mixture of two to three gluten-free flours to take advantage of all their properties.

And there you have it, you now know everything, or almost everything, about flours.

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